However, the results of recent decades show that there is a need for a more nuanced picture of the impact of institutional frameworks in collective bargaining on the labour market and economic outcomes. In fact, it seems that different systems can achieve similar results, while formally similar systems can produce very different results, depending on the specific functioning of the system in practice. This is the case, for example, in Denmark, Germany, France, Portugal or Italy, where wages are generally negotiated at sectoral level, but large differences in the rules and applications of extensions, derogations and opt-out clauses, as well as coordination practices, lead to considerable differences in labour market outcomes, but also in confidence in the national system of collective bargaining and its functioning. 15. ←. Due to opposition from trade unions to full decentralisation and employers` organisations (dominated by large companies), they have resisted increased competition in wage fixing. And also because of the lack of capacity and representation of workers to negotiate agreements at company level. (b) the order does not give rise to any union council representing workers in fewer than 15 bargaining units. 2017, c. 3, see 9. On average, in OECD countries, the proportion of workers covered by a collective agreement increased from 45% in 1985 to 33% in 2015. The largest decline was recorded in Central and Eastern European countries, with sharp declines in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and more recently in Greece. Coverage has been relatively stable in most continental European countries, with the exception of Germany, where it has declined considerably since reunification in 1990.
14. ←. However, this may be motivated by a few outliers, i.e. few agreements that have not been renewed for many years. Organised decentralisation (or the controlled form of decentralised collective bargaining) takes two main forms in European countries. In the first case, national or sectoral agreements define the general framework, while leaving a large margin for negotiation at company/enterprise level (e.g. in the Scandinavian countries or the Netherlands): sectors may define minimum or standard working conditions, supplement or derogate from employers at company level; or allow workers and employers to choose “à la carte” and, if they wish, to trade wages against working conditions. A second form of organised decentralisation is that in which national or sectoral agreements allow and define the conditions for derogation at lower levels through the so-called openness or opt-out clauses (Germany is probably the most outstanding example). .