World War II ended American isolationism. The first steps away from neutrality were the form of executive agreements (such as the destructive basic agreement of September 3, 1940), which allowed for increased aid to England. But it was the very important Lend-Lease Act (March 11, 1941) that, before Pearl Harbor, introduced the United States into the first phase of world diplomacy, while giving it a whole new form. Franklin Roosevelt`s courageous initiatives, combined with the enormous growth of American economic power, gave rise to an unprecedented new diplomatic form, foreign aid. While traditional diplomacy had been conducted between large and small powers and Wilsonian diplomacy had established the principle of equality, diplomacy took on a dual nature after lend-lease. On the one hand, relations between nations considered equal continued to be maintained by ambassadors. On the other hand, a new form of relationship has emerged between two countries, one having become an auxiliary and the other a beneficiary of aid. Aid, which could be economic, military or technical, was managed by government officials who were not ambassadors and who, in general, depended only nominally on it. Aid agreements have tended to develop in the following ways: first, the passage of a general law by Congress; secondly, the vote on appropriations; thirdly, the aid agreements concluded with the beneficiaries. After the Korean War (July 27, 1953), the withdrawal of France from Indochina (the Geneva Accords of July 20, 1954 were rejected by the United States) or after the war in Vietnam, no peace treaty – only ceasefire agreements – was adopted. The three governments took note of the talks that have taken place in recent weeks in London between British, American, Soviet and French representatives with a view to reaching agreement on the methods of trial of major war criminals whose crimes do not have a particular geographical location, in accordance with the Moscow Declaration of October 1943. (In the event of aggression in the North Atlantic region, each party would “act immediately, individually and in agreement with the other parties whatever act it deems necessary, including the use of force of arms.”) The signing by the twelve members took place on April 4, 1949 in Washington, D.C.